Tag Archives: Environmental Issues

Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Perspectives in JIDC: Immune Status, The Elderly and Pandemics. by Stephen Huang

On 31 March 31 2013, the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission officially announced the emergence of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in humans.  This virus has now caused disease in 108 people (as of 23 April 23), including severe cases and mortality.  Although the virus has not been shown to transmit from human-to-human, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus poses a pandemic threat in the human population due to the lack of pre-existing immunity and its high fatality rate, should human-to-human transmission occur.

img1

Figure 2 from Guan et al., 2013: Typical wet market in China showing staked cages of chickens, ducks and pigeons

In this issue of JIDC, Yi and colleagues of the International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China, published a manuscript reporting a possible route via the mixed poultry-mammals  environment in the Chinese live markets as the source of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus human infections.

img2

Figure 3 from Guan et al., 2013: Typical wet market in China showing close proximity of multiple species including rabbits

Furthermore, based on the predominant number of severe cases in the elderly, the paper also puts forth the elderly population as at high risk for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus H7N9 human disease.

img5

Figure 5 from Guan et al., 2013: Number of nrH7N9 human cases per age group in
China as of April 15

The manuscript describes the lack of knowledge in designing effective H7N9 vaccines and immune surveillance, as well as lack of understanding in the disease’s pathogenesis, especially in the high-risk group.  This issue requires immediate attention for assessing a possible new pandemic outbreak.  The article can be found under this link: http://www.jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/23592638.

Stephen Huang

Advertisements

6 Comments

Filed under China, Countries, Environmental Issues, Infectious Disease, Influenza, Outbreaks

Goodbye 2011 and Hello New Science Year 2012: JIDC Postcards 2011- a Wrap-up

Good Bye 2011.  Hello New Science Year! Its 2012!  I hope everyone had a fabulous 2011 and rang in 2012 with a (big) bang!

There is so much a new year brings, especially in science. A new year with many possibilities. New conferences to attend (yeah!). Papers to publish. Exciting projects to start.  And new posts to write for the JIDC Blog!

To move forward in a guided direction I often feel we need to review the past.  What conferences were attended?  Were they beneficial? What papers were we able to publish last year? Were they well received? What are the stages of the current projects? Are they close to a publication? Are they close to completion?

And here at the JIDC Blog, what were the posts on the Blog over the last year?  Were they helpful to readers and authors? Did they promote scientific discussion? Were the Blog and the Blog Posts a good resource for research information? – This was my main goal when starting the JIDC Blog.  My hope was that the Blog would be useful to JIDC readers and authors alike as an information resource as well as a point for discussions.  I also hoped that it would be a valuable tool for non-JIDC members and help educate new people about JIDC.

So shall we review?

There is a blog tradition that I have only just learned about.  The tradition is that the first post of the New Year should be a listing of all the first sentences from the first post of every month from the previous year.

Below is a listing of all of the first Posts of every month in 2011 and the first sentences from each.  I have also added my personal notes from each post.

Here we go…

June 2011 — JIDC Postcards: The JIDC Blog

Hi, and welcome to JIDC’s blog. 

I was sooo excited…and nervous to introduce the Blog to the JIDC community and the world.  Would anyone read it? Would anyone like it?  Would it be a Blog that we could be proud of? Only you can answer these questions for me. 

 

July 2011 – Olga:  From Mozambique to Brazil

A Challenge!! An Opportunity!!

My name is Olga André Chichava, and I’m a young biologist fromMozambique!

I absolutely loved this post from Olga. Her story gave an incredible view into the life of a research student who is also a mother.  I was inspired to see her courage to move to a foreign country and her drive to build her masters project.   She shared her passion for research as well as life with us. This post was featured on the headlines of Microbiology Daily, I was so proud. Also, this post is the most popular post on the Blog.

 

August 2011 – Milliedes in Kashmir,India

Insects have been found in Marrhama, a village in Blok Trehgam in the District of Kupwara Jammu and Kashmir, India. The main water source used for drinking purposes is badly affected by the insects.

This post from Dr. Kadri highlighted problems that affect regional areas which can easily go unnoticed to the rest of the world.  I am so glad that he shared this experience so that more people can be aware of such difficulties that face communities. This is the second most popular post of all time on the Blog and I am happy that it has reached so many people!

 

September 2011 – The First Annual Conference on Drug Therapy in TB Infection

The Africa Health Research Organization, AHRO, presents the International Conference on Drug Therapy in TB Infection

What: First International Conference on Drug Therapy in TB Infection
When: 6-7 January 2012
Where: Edinburgh Scotland
Who: Presented by AHRO,Africa Health Research Organization

It was great to post about this conference.  Since the conference was just completed, I hope that everything went well and it was a successful event.  Also, I would love to hear a roundup of the conference by anyone who attended.  Please contact me if you are interested in writing a Blog Post describing this meeting.

 

October 2011 – And the winner is…! JIDC Open Access Week#4

And the winner is….I just couldn’t help it.  I have enjoyed Open Access Week and the JIDC T-shirt give-away that I could not just draw only 1 name.  So I picked 6!

Ooooo this was an exciting one.  I was incredibly happy to share JIDC and the JIDC T-shirts with readers and authors! If you are a winner and you haven’t contacted me and would still like at T-shirt, please let me know.

 

November 2011 – Publishing a Scientific Article in JIDC

How do I publish a scientific paper?…This question is asked by all young scientists. 

How do you write a scientific paper? There are so many directions one can take when putting their research together. I hope this helped authors organize themselves when preparing manuscripts for JIDC.  In addition to this Post, if you have other specific questions about writing a paper or you have a particular writing topic you would like to see a post about, please don’t hesitate to let me know.  I am currently preparing a post how I write a scientific paper to share with you.

 

December 2011 – ReR – MedToday!

Memento te hominem esse. – Remember that you are human.

What an important point that is! Remember you are human. We are all vulnerable and delicate aren’t we? I am so happy to have posted the special work of ReR-MedToday! The importance of support during times of ill health can’t be overstated. I am sure the families touched by this organization are forever grateful.

 

Thats a Wrap! 

So that’s the JIDC Blog for 2011.  I hope 2012 brings just as fabulous Posts and discussions as 2011 did.

I would like to thank everyone who contributed to the Posts and Discussion of the 2011 JIDC Blog!  In no particular order, BIG THANKS to:

IRIN and Jane Summ

Olga Andre Chichava

Prof. Jorg Heukelbach

Anna Carolina Ritter

Laboratory of Food Microbiology of the ICTA/UFRGS

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Dr. Vinod Singh

USAID

David Dorherty

Joanne Wong

Dr. S.M. Kadri

Open Access and Open Access Week

SPARC

PLoS

Donna Okubo

Dr. Amber Farooqui

Jain et al., JIDC 2011

Dr. Abubaker Yaro

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

1st International Conference on Drug Therapy in TB Infection

The Grandest Challenge

Dr. Abdallah S. Daar

Dr. Peter A. Singer

Sun et al., JIDC 2011

Amedei et al., JIDC 2011

Elios et al., JIDC 2011

Jeff Coombs

Tracy Zao

Ashish Chandra Shrestha

Sara Norris

Christopher Logue

Sunita Pareek

Marie Anne Chattaway

Chimwemwe Mandalasi

Jane-Francis Akoachere

University of Buea, Cameroon

Nikki Kelvin

Tribaldos et al., JIDC 2011

Dr. Lorelei Silverman

Dr. Rosalind Silverman

Models of Human Diseases

Loredana

University Hospital of Hue, Vietnam

University of Sassari

Dr. Le Van An

Dr. Tran

Prof. Piero Cappuccinelli

Remi Eryk Raitza

ReR-MedToday!

SmileKenya

Drake Current

Current Family

Dr. Myo Nyein Aung

School of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok

And a spceial thanks to Prof. Salvatore Rubino for his support of the Blog!

Reflecting on the 2011 Blog has shown me I have lots more science to cover! It has also spiked my curiosity.  What was your favorite Post of 2011?  What about your Favorite JIDC Postcard? Was there a topic that you enjoyed reading about or a Postcard that you could identify with? Let me know. I love to hear from you!

4 Comments

Filed under Amber, Countries, Editor's Pick, Environmental Issues, JIDC News, Open Access, People, Postcards, Science Thoughts, Science Tools, Scientific Writing, Wrap-Up

Enivronmental Issues: Millipedes in Kashmir, India

New Blog Section:  Environmental Issues

I am pleased to announce that we are adding a new section to our JIDC Blog, called Environmental Issues.  This section will deal with problems that are affecting the environment such as floods, droughts, insects, and pollution.  We encourage readers to contact us about problems affecting their local environment.  As environmental problems usually affect health, it is important to report on these issues. 

Millipedes in Kashmir

Wikipedia Image

Our first post comes from Dr. S. Manzoor Kadri, an Epidemiologist from Kashmir Province, JK, India.  He writes about the significant population increase of multisegmented insects in his region, specifically in his local water supply.  The JIDC entamologist Ignazio Floris, professor of Entomology, Agriculture Faculty, University of Sassari, has reviewed his report and concluded these insects to be millipedes, which are arthropods that feed on decaying plant matter.  A good write up on millipedes can be found from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Ignazio Floris described millipedes for us as being insects with a multisegmented cylindrical body, where a pair of legs usually belong to each segment of which there are many varieties.  Millipedes are usually harmless, although some tropical varieties have been shown to injure humans.  

 

The deleterious effects of Millipedes

Image from Enchanted Learning at http://www.enchantedlearning.com

In addition to destroying agricultural crops, the millipede can also cause painful bites to humans.  Along the millipede’s body segments are numerous ‘repugnatorial’ glands, where the secretions from these glands have been shown to be harmful to humans. The millipedes which can cause harmful affects to humans mostly arise from tropical and subtropical zones, where giant species have been found (youtube video on giant African millipede).  Specifically, millipedes have been known to bite humans and cause much pain due to local erythema and oedema, which can last over several hours. Systemic symptoms can also arise from the painful bites which include nausea, dizziness and pyrexia. 

 Below is the Environmental Postcard from Dr. SM Kadri.

Alyson

 

POSTCARD ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:  Story of Insects from Marrhama Block Trehgam District Kupwara , Kashmir , India: Is it a public health problem?

Insects have been found in Marrhama, a village in Blok Trehgam in the District of Kupwara Jammu and Kashmir, India. The main water source used for drinking purposes is badly affected by the insects.

Map of India from Wikitravel

Health Professionals along with a Block Medical Officer, visited the village, which is about 20 km away from District Head Quarter Kupwara. The area is mostly surrounded by forests and hills, and the population of the affected village Marrhama is about 3500.

The people of the area are very poor subsitance farmers who possess little land.

A  local resident told the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP)  Team that he had seen a large number of the same kind of insects in the forest one month previously, creeping from the jungle area towards the village .

 

Morphology of Insects

The insects are white in colour, approximately 1 inch long, and  each insect has 40 pairs of legs. During its visit, the IDSP Team observed that the insects were found mostly in moist rather than in hot, dry areas. The team must now determine the extent of the public health problem that is posed by the presence of the insects and the safety of the local drinking water.

Image taken by Mr Najmusaqib Shah , DM , IDSP ,Kupwara

 

 

Picture taken by Mr Najmusaqib Shah , DM , IDSP ,Kupwara

 

Picture taken by Mr Najmusaqib Shah , DM , IDSP ,Kupwara

 

Picture taken by Mr Najmusaqib Shah , DM , IDSP ,Kupwara

 

 

Picture taken by Mr Najmusaqib Shah , DM , IDSP ,Kupwara

More pictures of the Insects can be found here in PDF format: Insects_seen_in_the_affected_area_of_District_Kupwara[1]

 

Tasks and Challenges? Is it a public health problem? Is the water safe for drinking?

 

Surveillance Team Members

  • Dr SM Kadri, Epidemiologist Kashmir, India
  • Dr Masarat Iqbal Wani , Block Medical Officer Kupwara, India
  • Mr. Najmusaqib Shah, Data Manager IDSP, Kupwara India

 This report was possible due to the dynamic leadership of Dr. Saleem ur Rehman, Director of Health Services, Kashmir, India.

SM Kadri Bio

Picture taken by Ms Elis Waden

Syed Manzoor Kadri, MB, MPH/ICHD (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) is working as an epidemiologist in Kashmir, India.  Dr.Kadri  is the State Nodal officer for NCD (Non Communicable Diseases) for Jammu & Kashmir, India.   He is associated with Public Health Foundation of India as an Observer /Advisor for EBDM (Evidence Based Diabetes Management).   As well, he  is the State Surveillance Officer for Disease Control for CD/NCDs.  Dr. Kadri  trains medical doctors and paramedics in the upcoming theoretics of diseases, awareness regarding HIV/AIDS, reproductive and child health, and disease surveillance.  His research interests include the diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease.  Dr. Kadri  is Editor-in-Chief for International Journal of Med and PH www.ijmedph.org  and Executive Editor for Indian J for Practicing Doctor http://ijpd.indmedica.com .  He is a fellow of World Health Organization where he completed FETP.

Post and Bio submitted by SM Kadri

Image from the Royal Alberta Museum http://www.royalalbertamuseum.ca

7 Comments

Filed under Environmental Issues, Environmental Postcard, India, Postcards