Tag Archives: Italy

Introducing DR. Ana Carolina Ritter, PhD! Moving from PhD student to Post Doctoral Fellow

So you can’t wait to finish your PhD.  The years have been slowly slugging by.  It seems you have been at it for eternity…  And then BAM!!! You are done.  It seems it has come all at once.  So what comes next? What comes after the PhD is completed?  And importantly, now that you have finished (which is what you have been waiting for), it may be hard to know how to move on or what to do next.  I HAVE BEEN THERE. And so has Ana Carolina.

Ana last wrote of her interesting PhD research on Salmonella, telling us how she was able to study and conduct her lab work in both Italy and in her native Brazil.  Now Ana updates us with her exciting news that she has received her PhD.  She also shares how she navigated the difficult road from PhD to landing a postdoctoral fellowship in Bologna, Italy.

Good Luck Ana!


Italy, I’m coming!

Hello! Good news, I’m going back to Italy … To do the postdoctoral research, this time in Bologna!

In my last blog post, I wrote a little bit about my experience completing part of my PhD at the University of Sassari… Since then, I have completed my PhD and the desire to return to Italy increased!

AnaPhD Talk

Ana’s PhD Seminar in Brazil

Therefore, while completing my doctorate, I sought out a group conducting strong research in food microbiology in Italy to do my postdoctoral research. After searching through PubMed, I found some papers published by the group led by Professor Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni.  I was very interested in the research they perform at the University of Bologna, more precisely in the Distal.  I contacted Professor Guerzoni and we were extremely well matched.

Upon receipt of her acceptance, I applied for a scholarship from a Brazilian funding agency for research, called “National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development” (CNPq)1.  I outlined a project where I proposed working with new technology for disinfection of food, called Gas plasma2.  In late September I received a positive response from the Brazilian government, and will embark for Bologna in January 2013! Very cool huh?

Currently, it is exciting times for research in Brazil as the government is supporting researchers in bringing new technologies to Brazil by funding global travel for scientific education.  This initiative supports the development of competent professionals, through the granting of many scholarships to enable researchers to study in top universities worldwide.

I’m very excited as I am going through a new experience both in my personal life and academic life. And I hope that this partnership with the University of Bologna allows me to publish work as was the case happened with the University of Sassari3… And of course, I’ll be closer the Central Office of JIDC and old friends.

See you!

1: http://www.cienciasemfronteiras.gov.br/web/csf-eng/

2: Ragni, A., Berardinelli,A.,, Vannini, L., Montanari, C, Sirri, F., Guerzoni, M.B., Guarnieri, A. Non-thermal atmospheric gas plasma device for surface decontamination of shell eggs. Journal of Food Engineering 100 (2010) 125–132.

3: Ritter, A. C., Bacciu, D., Santi, L., Silva, W.O.B, Vainstein, M. H., Rubino, S., Uzzau, S., Tondo,E.C. Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in Sodium Hypochlorite Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Isolated from Foodborne Illness Outbreaks in Southern Brazil. Journal of Food Protection. Journal of Food Protection. , v.75, p.437 – 442, 2012.


Ana’s PhD Graduation Celebration



Filed under Brazil, Countries, Infectious Disease, Postcards, Salmonella

A Plague of Bones: Conference!

Without a doubt, my favourite research project I have ever been a part of is the ancient Pathogens project. This was my research focus during my Visiting Professorship at the University of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy in 2010. This was my Indian Jones moment, except the treasure was not rare artifacts but the discovery of ancient pathogens.

In Sardinia there is an abundance of ancient and medieval mass graves (see burial map).  Although these mass graves data back more than 3,000 years, the reason for the mass grave construction still remains a mystery.  Thereby a fascinating scientific problem exists:  What did these people buried together die from?

Archeology of Sardinia

We hypothesized that by sequencing the nonhuman DNA extracted from the bones and teeth of the victims in the mass graves, we could identify a pathogen that may have infected these people and caused their death.   Our list of pathogenic suspects that may have caused death included Yersinia pestis, Salmonella enterica, Bacillos anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  This mode of attack, sequencing ancient DNA to determine cause of death, is not new and previous examples include identification of Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Thypi as the causative agent of the ancient plague of Athens in 430 BC [1] and Yersinia pestis as the agent of the Black Plague [2–4] although the later has been disputed [5].   Importantly, mass graves are commonly devised during a disease outbreak to limit the spread of disease, as in Europe during the Black Plague.  Therefore, we speculated that the people buried together in the mass graves of Sardinia died of the same cause, a disease epidemic.  By identifying and studying the causative agent of ancient plagues, we hope to learn about the evolving nature of human and animal modern pathogens so that we can model current and future epidemics.

Since I left Sardinia and my little project, the ancient Pathogen Project has grown enormously.  And that brings us to the announcement of the Ancient Pathogens meeting hosted by Professor Salvatore Rubino in Sardinia, Italy, in September.  The conference is sponsered by JIDC, University Health Network, Shantou University Medical School, Immune Diagnostics and Research, Comune Di Stintino, University of Sassari. This is an exciting opportunity!

Mass grave excavation in Alghero, Sardinia

Titled Mummies, Bones, and Ancient Pathogens, the conference will take place 7-8 September 2012, in Stintino, Sardinia, Italy, at the STINTINO Palazzo Comunale. Over the course of the two days, four sessions on “Archaic and Modern Genomes”, “Evolutionary Medicine, Ancient Pathogens and Pathologies”, “Ancient Pathogens”, and “Bioarchaeology of Sardinia and Sicily” will be held. Several of Europe’s foremost researchers in the fields of Archaeology, Bioarchaeology, the History of Medicine, and Ancient Pathogens are featured speakers, including Prof. Carsten Pusch of the Institute of Human GeneticsUniversity of Tübingen, Germany;  Prof. Bernardino Fantini University of Geneva, Switzerland; Prof. Marco Milanese, University of Sassari; Susanna Sawyer University of Tübingen, Germany; Prof. Raffaella Bianucci University of Turin; Prof. Paolo Francalacci University of Sassari; Prof. Marco Rendeli, University of Sassari; Elisabetta Garau, Unversity of Sassari; Rossella Filigheddu, University of Sassari; and Dr. Alberto Leo Shantou University to name a few. Just to tantalize you, here are some titles of the exciting presentations:

“Archaic Genomes: A Story Written in Neanderthal and Denisova DNA”

“Placing the sequence of “Ötzi the Iceman” in the high resolution Y chromosome phlylogeny by whole genome sequencing”

“Cancer and Infectious Diseases: the Challenge of Soft Tissue Paleopathology”

“Vector-Borne Diseases in Ancient Human Remains”

“The Sicily Mummy Project”

“First Insights into the Metagenome of Ancient Egyptian Mummies Using Next Generation Sequencing”

“Sequencing DNA from Ancient Seeds with Medicinal Properties”

For more information including registration, please visit the conference website http://www.mummiesbonesandancientpathogens.org/  or email Prof. Salvatore Rubino at rubino(at)uniss(dot)it

Reference List

    1.    Papagrigorakis MJ, Yapijakis C, Synodinos PN, Baziotopoulou-Valavani E (2006) DNA examination of ancient dental pulp incriminates typhoid fever as a probable cause of the Plague of Athens. Int J Infect Dis 10: 206-214. S1201-9712(05)00178-5 [pii];10.1016/j.ijid.2005.09.001 [doi].

2.    Raoult D, Aboudharam G, Crubezy E, Larrouy G, Ludes B, Drancourt M (2000) Molecular identification by “suicide PCR” of Yersinia pestis as the agent of medieval black death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 12800-12803. 10.1073/pnas.220225197 [doi];220225197 [pii].

3.    Drancourt M, Aboudharam G, Signoli M, Dutour O, Raoult D (1998) Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 12637-12640.

4.    Drancourt M, Raoult D (2004) Molecular detection of Yersinia pestis in dental pulp. Microbiology 150: 263-264.

5.    Gilbert MT, Cuccui J, White W, Lynnerup N, Titball RW, Cooper A, Prentice MB (2004) Absence of Yersinia pestis-specific DNA in human teeth from five European excavations of putative plague victims. Microbiology 150: 341-354.


Filed under Countries, Events, Infectious Disease, JIDC News, News, Salmonella, Tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis

Loredana — An Italian Nurse Studying in Vietnam

What a beautiful story from Loredana! Loredana is a nurse from Sardinia Italy who traveled to Vietnam to participate in an internship at the University Hospital of Hue.  I hope you enjoy her story as much as I did.


My name is Loredana and I am a nurse from the University of Sassari. In March I had a wonderful experience at the University Hospital of Hue, Vietnam, where I did internships in the Department of Oncology as well as in the Department of Surgery and in operating room.

My time in Vietnam was a wonderful opportunity for my personal life and my work.  I think that travelling and working in a foreign country is something that all the doctors and nurses should experience, because it enriches us both prsonally and professionally. I met wonderful people who accompanied me in this adventure.

Now I am going to prepare my thesis on infections after surgery, which will analyze the etiology, risk factors, consequences and possible resolutions of post surgical infections. These types of infections are a difficult problem to solve, but collaboration and cooperation with other medical personnel in the form of international internship is one  approach to finding solutions and raise awareness of this issue.

Dr. Le Van An, Department of Medical Microbiology of Hue College of Medicine and Pharmacy in Vietnam. Dr. Le Van An is also a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Le Van, Dr. Tram, Professor Salvatore Rubino and Professor Piero Cappuccinelli for their support during my internship. It was an amazing experience that I will always remember.

Italian Translation

Mi chiamo Loredana e sono un’infermiera, provengo dall’Università di Sassari, a marzo ho fatto una bellissima esperienza presso l’Ospedale Universitario di Hue, in Vietnam. Ho avuto la possibilità di effettuare un tirocinio nei dipartimenti di oncologia, chirurgia e sala operatoria. È stata una importantissima opportunità per la mia vita ed il mio lavoro che mi ha permesso anche di incontrare persone splendide che mi hanno affiancato in questa avventura. Penso che tutti i medici e gli infermieri dovrebbero fare questo tipo di esperienza che arricchisce sia dal punto di vista professionale che umano. Adesso sto preparando la mia tesi di laurea sulle “infezioni postoperatorie in un ospedale del Vietnam Centrale”, dove analizzo l’eziologia, i fattori di rischio, le conseguenze e le eventuali risoluzioni. Le infezioni postoperatorie sono un problema di difficile risoluzione ma la Cooperazione può offrire la via da seguire e sensibilizzare l’opinione pubblica sul problema. Questo lavoro si è potuto realizzare anche grazie alle preziose informazioni del Dott. Le Van An del Department of Medical Microbiology of Hue College of Medicine and Pharmacy. Il Dott. Le Van An è un membro del comitato editoriale del Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. Colgo l’occasione per ringraziare Dott. Le Van, Dott.ssa Tram, Professor Salvatore Rubino e il Professor Piero Cappuccinelli.


Filed under Countries, Infectious Disease, Vietnam

Outbreaks: Chikungunya outbreak in the Republic of Congo

JIDC Outbreaks

JIDC is introducing a new section of our Blog, Outbreaks.  Outbreaks will report on current infectious outbreaks worldwide and will include a summary of scientific information and /or epidemiology concerning the pathogen.  If you have an outbreak to report or a summary you would like to see posted, please contact me at akelvin@jidc.org

Outbreak:  Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of Congo

Chikungunya fever is a crippling disease caused by an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted to humans through mosquitoes.  Although Chikungunya virus is not often associated with mortality, the effects of virus outbreaks are often devastating, causing significant economic loss.  The recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever in the Republic of Congo has reported thousands of people affected. 


Outbreak of Chikungunya in the Republic of Congo

It was reported by IRIN, the UN’s humanitarian news and analysis service, on June 15th, 2011 that a large outbreak of possible Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is affecting the Republic of Congo (http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=92989)[1]. In Brazzaville, the Republic of Congo’s largest city, an estimated 1,000 cases of CHIKF is suspected since the beginning of June.  CHIKF in humans is caused by infection of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) which is transmitted by mosquitoes to people (arbovirus)[2].  Testing of patients who presented with CHIKF symptoms in the Republic of Congo have resulted positive for the CHIKV. 

IRIN reported “More than 900 people are showing symptoms of chikungunya, which is transmitted by mosquito,” Director-General of Health Alexis Elira Dokekias told a news conference on 14 June. 

By the end of June (June 28, 2011) an IRIN representative reported there were approximately 8,000 CHIKF affected people with no associated deaths. 

Although historically CHIKV is found in tropical regions of the globe, outbreaks have been reported in temperate regions suggesting the expanding tropism of the virus.


JIDC has published 3 articles on CHIKV that can be found Open Access on the JIDC website:

  1.  A Review of Chikungunya by Cavrini F. et al., JIDC 2009 entitled Chikungunya:  an emerging and spreading arthropod-borne viral disease [2].
  2. Antiviral therapy for Chikungunya by Ravichandran R. and Manian M. JIDC 2008 entitled Ribavirin therapy for Chikungunya arthritis [3].
  3. A Case Report of Chikungunya in India by Kumari R. et al., JIDC 2010 entitled The first Chikungunya case from Sonipat district near the national capital city of Delhi, India[4].


CHIKF not only a disease of the tropics

Historically CHIKV was only found in tropical regions.  In 2007, an outbreak of CHIKV occurred in Emilia Romagna region of Northern Italy.  The Italian outbreak of CHIKV spread through communities surrounding the city of Ravenna during August to October 2007 and also involved the major Italian city of Bologna [5,6].  In Italy, 254 people were determined to be infected with CHIKV which was transmitted by Ae. albopictus mosquito. The mosquito has been found in the Emilia Romagna region since 1990 [7–9].  The virus was brought to the Emilia Romagna region by a traveller returning from a CHIKV affected country.  The virus was of the Central/East African virus genotype [7,8].  Genomic sequencing showed that the amino acids sequence included a substitution mutation in the E1 envelope protein (E1-A226V) [10] which is important for viral entry into host cells.  This mutation was acquired during the large 2005-2006 Indian Ocean CHIKV outbreak and enabled the virus to infect the Ae. albopictus mosquito where previously it only infected the Ae. aegyptii [11].  Importantly, from this outbreak, it was shown that temperate regions are also susceptible to the CHIKV infections and not only tropical regions.  

CHIKV Outbreak in Emilia Romagna region of Northern Italy. Cavrini F. et al., JIDC 2009


History of CHIKV

Interestingly, CHIKV has been shown to infect and be transmitted by 2 species of mosquitoes:  Ae. aegyptii and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.  Chikungunya was identified in East Africa in the early 1950s and since then has caused epidemics in continental Africa, the Indian Ocean region, and countries of Southeast Asia such as India where there has been an estimated 1.39 million cases (since 2006) [4,12–15] .  The only reported outbreak outside of these areas was in Italy in the Emilia Romagna region in 2007.  Small non-epidemic imported cases have been reported in other regions such as North America, France and Japan which were caused by travellers returning from affected areas [16–18]. 

The epidemic which occurred on La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean in 2005-2006 was a devastating CHIKV outbreak where over one-third of the population was affected [19].  During this outbreak, the CHIKV acquired a genetic mutation permiting the Ae. albopictus mosquito to carry the CHIKV.  Previously CHIKV only circulated in Ae. aegyptii mosquitoes [19,20].  CHIKV is now of global health concern since expansion of mosquito vectors has created potential for the Chikungunya virus to spread to temperate areas as Ae. albopitcus inhabits regions in North America and Europe [21,22].     

CHIKV Clinical Manifestations

The defining symptom of CHIKF is severe joint pain and as the severe joint pain increases the patient often takes a bent posture.  Chikungunya, a word originating from the Tanzanian and Mozambique region meaning that which bends up, describes this distorted posture[20].  Other symptoms of CHIKF include sudden appearance of high fever, rash, headache, nausea, vomiting, myalgia and arthalgia or severe joint pain.  Symptoms start 4 to 7 days following infection which defines the acute phase of CHIKF.  Importantly, the acute phase lasts approximately 2 weeks, joint pain can persist for months or years following initial infection [6,7,23]. 

CHIKV Immune Response and Treatments

Currently, the immune response for CHIKV infection remains largely uninvestigated and there is no specific treatment available.  Reported in 2010, Ravichandran R. and Manian M. investigated the use of the antiviral agent ribavirin in patients suffering from severe joint pain attributed to CHIKV infection [3].  The ribavirin treated patients had a faster resolution of joint pain and joint inflammation compared to a control patient group.     

Cytokines have also been investigated as possible therapeutic drug targets and or biomarkers for CHIKF [24,25].  Importantly, Cytokines are immune mediators that direct immune responses during infection.  Ng and colleagues found that IL-1b, IL-6 and RANTES were correlated with severe acute phase CHIKF during the Singapore 2007 CHIKV outbreak [25].  Recently it was reported the acute phase of CHIKV infection is characterized by a strong innate immune response leading to CD8 T cell adaptive immunity[26]. It is clear that the immune response toward CHIKV needs to be further investigation and the cytokine signatures validated as possible biomarkers and/or drug targets for CHIKF.

Chikungunya Virus Phylogenetics

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus where there are three genotypes transmitted by mosquitoes.  The virus is of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family [21,23]. 

 Thanks to the IRIN!


Do you have questions?  Or would you like to report and outbreak in your area?  Please contact JIDC and let us know!  akelvin@jidc.org


Reference List


        1.    2011 June) IRIN. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=92989.

        2.    Cavrini F, Gaibani P, Pierro AM, Rossini G, Landini MP, Sambri V (2009) Chikungunya: an emerging and spreading arthropod-borne viral disease. J Infect Dev Ctries 3: 744-752.

        3.    Ravichandran R, Manian M (2008) Ribavirin therapy for Chikungunya arthritis. J Infect Dev Ctries 2: 140-142.

        4.    Kumari R, Nand P, Mittal V, Lal S, Saxena VK (2010) The first Chikungunya case from Sonipat district near the national capital city of Delhi, India. J Infect Dev Ctries 4: 262-263.

        5.    Seyler T, Rizzo C, Finarelli AC, Po C, Alessio P, Sambri V, Ciofi Degli Atti ML, Salmaso S (2008) Autochthonous chikungunya virus transmission may have occurred in Bologna, Italy, during the summer 2007 outbreak. Euro Surveill 13.

        6.    Liumbruno GM, Calteri D, Petropulacos K, Mattivi A, Po C, Macini P, Tomasini I, Zucchelli P, Silvestri AR, Sambri V, Pupella S, Catalano L, Piccinini V, Calizzani G, Grazzini G (2008) The Chikungunya epidemic in Italy and its repercussion on the blood system. Blood Transfus 6: 199-210.

        7.    Sambri V, Cavrini F, Rossini G, Pierro A, Landini MP (2008) The 2007 epidemic outbreak of Chikungunya virus infection in the Romagna region of Italy: a new perspective for the possible diffusion of tropical diseases in temperate areas? New Microbiol 31: 303-304.

        8.    Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Calzolari M, Angelini R, Venturi L, Fallacara F, Cordioli P, Angelini P, Venturelli C, Merialdi G, Dottori M (2008) Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 852-854.

        9.    Charrel RN, de L, X (2008) Chikungunya virus in north-eastern Italy: a consequence of seasonal synchronicity. Euro Surveill 13.

      10.    Bordi L, Carletti F, Castilletti C, Chiappini R, Sambri V, Cavrini F, Ippolito G, Di CA, Capobianchi MR (2008) Presence of the A226V mutation in autochthonous and imported Italian chikungunya virus strains. Clin Infect Dis 47: 428-429. 10.1086/589925 [doi].

      11.    Tsetsarkin KA, Vanlandingham DL, McGee CE, Higgs S (2007) A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential. PLoS Pathog 3: e201. 07-PLPA-RA-0664 [pii];10.1371/journal.ppat.0030201 [doi].

      12.    Demanou M, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Ngapana E, Rousset D, Paupy C, Manuguerra JC, Zeller H (2010) Chikungunya outbreak in a rural area of Western Cameroon in 2006: A retrospective serological and entomological survey. BMC Res Notes 3: 128. 1756-0500-3-128 [pii];10.1186/1756-0500-3-128 [doi].

      13.    Niyas KP, Abraham R, Unnikrishnan RN, Mathew T, Nair S, Manakkadan A, Issac A, Sreekumar E (2010) Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India. Virol J 7: 189. 1743-422X-7-189 [pii];10.1186/1743-422X-7-189 [doi].

      14.    Santhosh SR, Dash PK, Parida M, Khan M, Rao PV (2009) Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak. Virol J 6: 172. 1743-422X-6-172 [pii];10.1186/1743-422X-6-172 [doi].

      15.    2011) NVBDCP (2007).  Chikungunya fever situation in the country during 2006. http://nvbdcp.gov.in/Chikun-cases.html.

      16.    Parola P, de L, X, Jourdan J, Rovery C, Vaillant V, Minodier P, Brouqui P, Flahault A, Raoult D, Charrel RN (2006) Novel chikungunya virus variant in travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 1493-1499.

      17.    Gibney KB, Fischer M, Prince HE, Kramer LD, St GK, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, Staples JE (2011) Chikungunya fever in the United States: a fifteen year review of cases. Clin Infect Dis 52: e121-e126. ciq214 [pii];10.1093/cid/ciq214 [doi].

      18.    Mizuno Y, Kato Y, Takeshita N, Ujiie M, Kobayashi T, Kanagawa S, Kudo K, Lim CK, Takasaki T (2010) Clinical and radiological features of imported chikungunya fever in Japan: a study of six cases at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine. J Infect Chemother . 10.1007/s10156-010-0124-y [doi].

      19.    Schuffenecker I, Iteman I, Michault A, Murri S, Frangeul L, Vaney MC, Lavenir R, Pardigon N, Reynes JM, Pettinelli F, Biscornet L, Diancourt L, Michel S, Duquerroy S, Guigon G, Frenkiel MP, Brehin AC, Cubito N, Despres P, Kunst F, Rey FA, Zeller H, Brisse S (2006) Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med 3: e263. 06-PLME-RA-0242R1 [pii];10.1371/journal.pmed.0030263 [doi].

      20.    Thiboutot MM, Kannan S, Kawalekar OU, Shedlock DJ, Khan AS, Sarangan G, Srikanth P, Weiner DB, Muthumani K (2010) Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e623. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000623 [doi].

      21.    Sudeep AB, Parashar D (2008) Chikungunya: an overview. J Biosci 33: 443-449.

      22.    De L, X, Leroy E, Charrel RN, Ttsetsarkin K, Higgs S, Gould EA (2008) Chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come? Virol J 5: 33. 1743-422X-5-33 [pii];10.1186/1743-422X-5-33 [doi].

      23.    Cavrini F, Gaibani P, Pierro AM, Rossini G, Landini MP, Sambri V (2009) Chikungunya: an emerging and spreading arthropod-borne viral disease. J Infect Dev Ctries 3: 744-752.

      24.    Chirathaworn C, Rianthavorn P, Wuttirattanakowit N, Poovorawan Y (2010) Serum IL-18 and IL-18BP levels in patients with Chikungunya virus infection. Viral Immunol 23: 113-117. 10.1089/vim.2009.0077 [doi].

      25.    Ng LF, Chow A, Sun YJ, Kwek DJ, Lim PL, Dimatatac F, Ng LC, Ooi EE, Choo KH, Her Z, Kourilsky P, Leo YS (2009) IL-1beta, IL-6, and RANTES as biomarkers of Chikungunya severity. PLoS One 4: e4261. 10.1371/journal.pone.0004261 [doi].

      26.    Wauquier N, Becquart P, Nkoghe D, Padilla C, Ndjoyi-Mbiguino A, Leroy EM (2011) The acute phase of chikungunya virus infection in humans is associated with strong innate immunity and T CD8 cell activation. J Infect Dis 204: 115-123. jiq006 [pii];10.1093/infdis/jiq006 [doi].

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Filed under Chikungunya, Chikungunya, Infectious Disease, JIDC News, Outbreaks, Uncategorized